New PDF release: Environmental Systems: An introductory text

By Dr S J Harrison, S J Harrison, Dr D N Mottershead, D N Mottershead, I D White

ISBN-10: 1461304350

ISBN-13: 9781461304357

ISBN-10: 1461380510

ISBN-13: 9781461380511

Utilizing strength movement and mass move as unifying topics, the dialogue is decided in a thermodynamic point of view.

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Extra resources for Environmental Systems: An introductory text

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However, the Earth and its atmosphere rotate, and therefore it is often necessary to be able to account for the behaviour of objects located in a rotating frame. For example, to an observer an athlete throwing the hammer clearly has to pull, or exert an inward force, on the wire as he rotates in the throwing circle to keep the hammer head moving in a circular path. This is the centripetal force and is defined as centripetal force = mv2/r where r is the radius of the circle. However, the athlete himself, who would be in a rotating frame 34 MATTER.

This is the recognition of Newton's Second Law, which relates the force acting on the mass of a body to the change in velocity, or the acceleration of the body. 1) The term resultant force is used because under most real situations several component forces will be acting on a body, each of different magnitude and acting in a different direction or sense. It is therefore the net effect of these components the resultant force - that appears to be responsible for the acceleration of the body. Newton's Third Law is derived from the everyday experience that, when a force is applied (as for example pushing against a boulder) the boulder appears to be acting back with an equal force.

6 CHEMICAL REACTIONS Chemical reactions can be studied from various points of view. Attention can be directed to the bulk changes of the chemical substances involved. This approach is termed the stoichiometry of the reaction and expresses the active masses of the reactants and products in terms of gram molecular weights (moles). As the law of conservation of mass requires, the mass of reactants and of products must balance as there should be no loss of mass in a chemical reaction. For example, 2Na+OH- + (H+)2S0~- ~ 2H 20(1) + (Na+)2S0~80 g 98 g 36 g 142 g sodium hydroxide sulphuric acid water (liquid) sodium sulphate Alternatively, attention can be centred on the mechanism by which the reaction works, and by which the chemicals come together and how the products are formed.

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Environmental Systems: An introductory text by Dr S J Harrison, S J Harrison, Dr D N Mottershead, D N Mottershead, I D White


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