By Robert Allen Meyers
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Deterioration and loss of conductivity in air and in the presence of moisture 3. Need for expensive processing equipment 4. Lack of compatibility with other polymeric materials Polyacetylene, on a weight basis, is an outstanding conductive material, but its chemical environments and conditions of use must be carefully controlled. New dopants such as hexafluorophosphide ion (PF− 6 ) render the polymer more stable to oxidation and hydrolysis, and further research along this line may be fruitful. Also, copolymerization with new acetylenic monomers or the formation of lower molecular weight, linear polyacetylenes may improve the melt processability of the polymer.
The name piperidine reflects its first preparation from piperine, a pepper alkaloid (Piper nigrum). The zinc dust distillation of the atropine-degradation product tropane furnished 2-ethylpyridine. Destructive reactions of this type are only of historical interest, since a number of alkaloid degradations led to heterocyclic systems that exhibited no structural relation to the alkaloid itself. The most important reactions used in alkaloid chemistry are those that yield information about the neighborhood of the nitrogen atom(s).
Ion exchange and gel chromatography have also been successfully used. Other separation methods based on differences in partition between two immiscible liquids of functionally diverse alkaloids are sometimes preferred; among these are (Craig) countercurrent distribution and droplet countercurrent chromatography. VI. STRUCTURE ELUCIDATION The elucidation of the structure of an alkaloid requires the determination of its elemental composition and the bonded relationships of all constituent atoms in space.
Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, Organic Chemistry by Robert Allen Meyers