By Siepmann Dirk
This e-book deals a corpus-based comparative learn of a virtually totally unexplored set of multi-word lexical goods serving pragmatic or text-structuring services. half One presents a descriptive account of multi-word discourse markers in written English, French and German, focussing on dicussion of interlingual equivalence. half examines using multi-word markers by means of non-native audio system of English and discusses lexicographical and pedagogical implications.
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Additional resources for Discourse Markers Across Languages: A Contrastive Study of Second-level Discourse Markers in Native and Non-native Text With Implications for General and Pedagogic Lexicography
Crystal 1997:118–119) A word or phrase which helps to signal the direction in which language, particularly in a conversation, is going. g. ) but also (b) words outside the main syntax, such as oh, well, you see, I mean, etc. Words and phrases in this second group are sometimes labelled FILLERS or pragmatic particles. (Chalker and Weiner 1994:119) It is interesting to note that Crystal (1997), borrowing from Schiffrin (1987), reserves the term exclusively for speech, while Chalker and Weiner (1994) appear to make some allowance for the written language (‘particularly in a conversation’).
Apart from my French publisher Ellipses, who kindly sent two textbooks on floppy disk, no other company was willing to contribute in the absence of substantial pecuniary rewards. I therefore had no alternative but to collect texts from other sources. Text collection took two forms: first and foremost, I downloaded copyright-free texts on to my PC from electronic journals and academic text archives mounted on the Internet. Time-consuming as this text capture was, taking up at least 100 man-hours per corpus, it still seemed the most viable option considering the extra expenditure of money, time and effort involved in scanning texts.
It is therefore not necessary for the corpora to be fully representative of academic language as a whole; nor is it indispensable for them to have the same size. The corpora merely need to contain a sufficiently large number of tokens of any category of discourse marker in the languages under investigation. This raises questions about the adequate size of the corpus, and the range of text types to be covered. 1), so too does corpus construction (cf. Biber 1993): to ensure that the size of the academic corpora fitted the purpose of the present study, a number of pre-tests had to be carried out at various stages of the compilation process.
Discourse Markers Across Languages: A Contrastive Study of Second-level Discourse Markers in Native and Non-native Text With Implications for General and Pedagogic Lexicography by Siepmann Dirk