By K. L. Mittal (Editor) Rajiv Kohli (Editor)
Floor illness is of cardinal value in a number of applied sciences and industries, starting from microelectronics to optics to car to biomedical. therefore, the necessity to comprehend the factors of floor infection and their elimination is particularly patent. often talking, there are vast different types of floor contaminants: film-type and particulates. on this planet of shrinking dimensions, reminiscent of the ever-decreasing measurement of microelectronic units, there's an intensified have to comprehend the habit of nanoscale debris and to plan how one can get rid of them to a suitable point. debris which have been functionally risk free many years in the past are "killer defects" this present day, with critical implications for yield and reliability of the parts. This amply referenced and illustrated ebook addresses the resources, detection, characterization and elimination of either forms of contaminants, in addition to how you can hinder surfaces from being infected. a couple of concepts to watch the extent of cleanliness also are mentioned and a distinct emphasis is put on the habit of nanoscale debris in the course of the e-book.
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1 Basic concepts: mode locking and early generations of ultrashort laser sources The whole ﬁeld of ultrashort laser sources was given a boost by the invention and implementation of the technique called mode locking 28 FUNDAMENTALS (see for example [3–6] for a recent and exhaustive review). The mode locking technique consists essentially in locking in phase a large number of longitudinal modes simultaneously oscillating in a laser cavity, the frequency separation between two adjacent nodes being the inverse of the resonator round-trip time 1/Tr.
Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning - Fundamentals and Applied Aspects by K. L. Mittal (Editor) Rajiv Kohli (Editor)