By Kathleen O'Neill
Decentralization is likely one of the so much dramatic political and fiscal traits within the previous couple of many years. This publication seeks to deal with its motives, exploring decentralizing reforms in Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. It probes questions of the place and why decentralization is followed, what shape it truly is more likely to take up diverse contexts, and the way it's prone to evolve through the years. The ebook develops a thought linking decentralization's adoption to the electoral issues of political events: decentralization represents a fascinating process for events whose aid at subnational degrees seems to be safer than their customers in nationwide elections.
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Extra resources for Decentralizing the State: Elections, Parties, and Local Power in the Andes
Parties may be able to discipline their legislators, governors, and mayors through their influence over candidate placement on party lists, campaign finance, access to political resources once elected, or influence on future career paths, but these mechanisms would seem to hold less leverage over sitting presidents. In many Latin American cases, presidents are termlimited, which should weaken party leverage over them even more. However, in many cases, presidents are also party leaders who have a great deal of identification with the party; many can run for re-election after sitting out a turn or aspire to positions of influence within the party structure after they have served in the executive.
When elections determine who holds office, and thus who controls political and fiscal resources, parties face incentives to create new avenues to power. Likewise, the prevalence of positive policy discourse provides instant credibility and international support for reformers who propose decentralization. xml CY560B/O’Neill 38 0 521 60970 8 March 16, 2005 Electoral Theory and Comparative Evidence decentralization has its greatest influence when it coincides with the electoral incentives of those in a position to initiate change.
In addition, it appears that recent economic downturns in the region have been accompanied by a call for reconcentrating power in the central government, not for greater decentralization. Anticipating the results of the next chapter’s empirical test of this hypothesis, it is notable that Colombia decentralized in times of fiscal balance; Bolivia faced severe fiscal imbalance in the 1980s and did not decentralize then, but decentralized at a time of near fiscal balance, in 1994; Ecuador has faced volatile fiscal outcomes without decentralizing significantly; and Peru has decentralized at times of minor fiscal imbalance and recentralized after years of fiscal difficulty, in 1992.
Decentralizing the State: Elections, Parties, and Local Power in the Andes by Kathleen O'Neill