Download PDF by Norbert Schwarz, Seymour Sudman: Context Effects in Social and Psychological Research

By Norbert Schwarz, Seymour Sudman

ISBN-10: 1461228484

ISBN-13: 9781461228486

ISBN-10: 1461276950

ISBN-13: 9781461276951

0 e The individuals to this publication evaluation our present wisdom of context results in survey study, mental checking out, and social judgement. Drawing on contemporary advancements in cognitive psychology, they give theoretical money owed of the stipulations that result in the emergence of assorted context results and record a few new experimental stories. At stake now are transparent, functional wishes within the structuring of trustworthy exams, and a powerful curiosity to advance a coherent theoretical framework to evaluate and scrutinize context results, as well as the need to align a few of the findings in survey learn reviews with the discoveries made within the information-processing box. This booklet attests to a fruitful discussion among cognitive psychologists and survey researchers, because the cognitive procedures initiated through query probes are particularly starting to be understood and context results labeled and differentiated.

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Even more telling, the unidimensional representation of attitudes blurs important distinctions among those on the same side of an issue. The "same" evaluation can reflect quite disparate, even conflicting, underlying rationales (Fee, 1979). For example, my colleagues and I find that some people oppose welfare because they think that it is mismanaged, whereas others oppose it because they think that it is misconceived (Tourangeau, Rasinski, & D' Andrade, 1991). 36 4. , J. R. Anderson, 1983). If memory is a network of interconnected concepts that form propositions and images, then it is natural to suppose that attitudes are sets of interconnected beliefs, feelings, and images concerning a specific issue (cf.

Subtraction effects as a function of Gricean principles may not only be observed for part-whole influences; they may also operate if two questions stand in a part-part relation. This should be true if there is a great overlap in the content. That is. if two questions are very similar in what they refer to and if they are perceiVed as sharing the same conversational content, then the Gricean Maxim of Quantity should be applicable and require respondents to be informative by differentiating between their answers.

Thus, "context" may end up being an umbrella term covering several theoretically unrelated types of ideas. This should not trouble us greatly-even physicists still have to live with several fundamental forces that mayor may not turn out to be unifiable. Experimental work, whether in surveys or in laboratories, is clearly essential to this task, since only by such randomized comparisons can effects be discovered and studied. From one standpoint, we are fortunate because there is good reason to think that contextual forces in surveys are in no important ways different from what occurs in the rest of life, whether artifactually or not.

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Context Effects in Social and Psychological Research by Norbert Schwarz, Seymour Sudman


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