By Rui Diogo
This booklet demanding situations the idea that morphological information are inherently mistaken for phylogeny reconstruction, argues that either molecular and morphological phylogenies should still play a big position in systematics, and offers the main accomplished assessment of the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pinnacle, neck, pectoral and higher limb muscle tissues of primates.
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Extra resources for Comparative Anatomy and Phylogeny of Primate Muscles and Human Evolution
1990; Hasegawa et al. 1990, 1993; Ruvolo et al. 1991; Shoshani et al. 1996; Ruvolo 1997; Wilson et al. , 2007; Fabre et al. 2009; Wildman et al. 2009; Arnold et al. 2010). 0; Swofford 2003) were employed in the search for the most parsimonious cladograms. 73; Maddison & Maddison 2010). The search for the most parsimonious trees used Nona & Winclada with the “multiple TBR (tree-bisection-reconnection) + TBR (mult*max*)” option and an “unconstrained” search, with 999999 maximum trees to hold, 9999 replications, and 9999 starting trees per hold and 0 random seed.
We use the terminal taxon named “outgroup” not as a “virtual” clade to polarize the phylogenetic characters, but instead as a way to avoid one of the three outgroups used in our study being automatically identified (by placing it as the first taxon of the matrix) as the most plesiomorphic taxon in all of the trees. In the present study, deleting both the character “number 0” and the “outgroup” taxon in Nona & Winclada has no effect on the primate relationships shown in the tree of Fig. 2, but it does potentially complicate consideration of the results of these analyses because character number 1 is then considered to be character “ number 0” instead, and so on).
Slowinsky 1993) have defended a mixedparsimony approach in which multistate characters should be treated as “ordered” whenever reasonable but otherwise treated as “unordered” (see also Diogo 2004a, 2007). Following this procedure, characters 129 and 162 were coded as unordered because there is no logical reason to assume a transition from CS0 to CS2 (and/or to CS3, in char. 162) would likely require passing through CS1 (and/or through C2, in char. 62) (see Chapter 3). Regarding character 129, there is no logical reason to assume that from CS0 with 4 lumbricales it was necessary to pass through CS1 with 3 lumbricales to reach CS2 with 7 lumbricales.
Comparative Anatomy and Phylogeny of Primate Muscles and Human Evolution by Rui Diogo