By Lars Chittka, James D. Thomson
Vital breakthroughs have lately been made in our knowing of the cognitive and sensory skills of pollinators, corresponding to how pollinators understand, memorize, and react to floral indications and rewards; how they paintings flora, flow between inflorescences, and delivery pollen. those new findings have noticeable implications for the evolution of floral exhibit and variety, yet such a lot latest guides are scattered throughout a variety of journals in very diverse study traditions. This ebook brings jointly striking students from many various fields of pollination biology, integrating the paintings of neuroethologists and evolutionary ecologists to provide a multidisciplinary strategy.
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Additional resources for Cognitive Ecology of Pollination: Animal Behaviour and Floral Evolution
1998; Rosenzweig 1998). This has led to the assumption that the memory formation process is determined by its underlying cellular machinery, and that similar time courses for the respective stages are indicative of general mechanisms rather than species-speciﬁc and task-speciﬁc adaptations. However, studies on memory stages have focused primarily on their neural and cellular substrates, and have not yet asked the question of how these stages are adapted to the needs of an animal behaving in natural surroundings.
Our results suggest that, other things being equal, ﬂoral variation within a single trait should be less effective at promoting selective foraging behavior in individual pollinators than variability in two or more ﬂoral traits. It is tempting to consider these trends with reference to divergence among co-ﬂowering plants in the same area. One of the key components in sympatric divergence is the effectiveness of natural ﬂoral variation and pollinator selectivity as a potential isolating mechanism (Chittka et al.
At different feeders, bees do not expect to get the same reward as during the second-to-last visit at any of the three other feeders; at the same feeder, however, they develop an increasing (consolidating) memory for reward at that feeder. (Data for this ﬁgure come from unpublished work by U. ) term memory (eSTM) over the time course of a few seconds (Bitterman et al. 1983; Menzel 1990). This memory is strongly dominated by appetitive arousal induced by the US. , the unexpected experience of food.
Cognitive Ecology of Pollination: Animal Behaviour and Floral Evolution by Lars Chittka, James D. Thomson