Taking a micro-historical method of the learn of ethnic identities within the Philippines, this e-book bargains a desirable portrait of the way chinese language service provider households in Manila negotiated the meanings of chinese language, chinese language mestizo, Catholic, and Filipino
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Additional resources for Chinese and Chinese Mestizos of Manila (Chinese Overseas)
Finally, political and civil unrest in China led people to leave or at least keep two residences, one in Minnan, and another elsewhere in Nanyang. The Chinese people’s living standard, which continued to deteriorate in the late Qing dynasty, was further exacerbated by the civil wars and foreign commercial and military penetration. After losing two wars against the British and its allies (in the first Opium War of 1840–1842 and the second in 1856–1860), the Qing government signed various treaties with Britain, France, Russia, and the United States.
As a way to render clearer the examples given in the previous chapter, Chapter 9 incorporates the family history of the “richest” Chinese merchant at the time, Guillermo Araullo Cu Unjieng, and of the last two decades of Mariano Limjap’s life. In examining the flexible strategies of these Chinese merchant families and individuals in light of the changing political economy in the first three decades of the twentieth century, the chapter delineates the processes by which not only “Chinese” and “Filipino” identities, but also “Chinese” and “Filipino” families were formed.
Thus, even when there were times when maritime trade was banned, people continued to engage in this activity. There were other factors contributing to this. For instance, Fujian government officials and military officials supported maritime trade and engaged in the trade themselves. Scholars had a deep appreciation of and direct involvement in trading activities as well (Ng 1983, 200–1). 23 Evidences of such extensive and deep interaction include the similar religious traditions, agricultural technology, and kinship practices found between the two regions.
Chinese and Chinese Mestizos of Manila (Chinese Overseas) by Chu