By Daniela Galimberti
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Extra resources for Biomarkers for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease
The biomarker should be validated in neuropathologically confirmed AD cases. 3. , able to detect AD early in its course and distinguish it from other dementias. 4. The measurement of the biomarker has to be reliable, minimally invasive, simple to perform, and inexpensive. 3. , brain tumours or epidural haematomas. Recently, however, the potential of neuroimaging, not only to improve the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of AD, but also to monitor disease progression and treatment effects, has been increasingly recognized.
It seems, therefore, that it would be preferable to use this test in conjunction with other markers (see Figure 4 for an example of clock drawing). Figure 4. Example of the clock drawing test with a pre-drawn circle, performed by an AD patient. 22 A. Monti, B. Poletti and S. Zago Another promising task involved transcoding from Arabic to verbal code, or vice versa, the errors being considered a particular early specific indication of disease. g. 24Ætwenty4our, 274Æ2hundred and seventyfour). Eleven of the 13 patients assessed as AD exhibited these types of intrusion errors and the authors concluded that numerical transcoding ‘may be a simple bedside test for dementia’.
2007). This low specificity likely reflects the fact that AD shares many clinical features with other forms of dementia, and must be addressed through both revised AD and accurate nonAD dementia diagnostic criteria. Although clinical criteria for the diagnosis of AD in the early to middle stages of the disease may not be perfect, its diagnosis in the very early or asymptomatic stage is an even greater challenge. There is now increasing evidence that the molecular pathomechanisms of AD become active several years before neurons start dying and cognitive deficits manifest (DeKosky and Marek, 2003).
Biomarkers for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease by Daniela Galimberti