By Reshma Taneja
This new quantity of Current subject matters in Developmental Biology offers a finished set of reports on bHLH transcription factors. bHLH elements are significantly famous for his or her assorted roles in developmental tactics and their disorder underlies quite a few human pathologies. each one bankruptcy is authoritatively written by means of a number one specialist within the box and discusses each attainable element of this large and numerous field.
- Covers the world of simple helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription components in improvement and disease
- International board of authors
- Provides a accomplished set of stories on our present figuring out at the functionality of bHLH elements in improvement of assorted tissues and the way de-regulation of those components could cause, or is associated with, quite a few human diseases
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2011). The chromatin status and associated factors remain to be explored in this paradigm. It would be interesting to assess the expression of chromatin remodelers such as BAF60C during the generation of iPS cells, and in other cell lines that are “permissive” or “refractory” to myogenic conversion by Myod overexpression. 2. Transdifferentiation in vivo Mrfs can also initiate ectopic myogenesis in vivo, though with variable success rates depending on the organ or cell type. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans showed that induction of CeMyoD (HLH-1) is sufficient to convert virtually all somatic cells into a body wall muscle-like fate; the capacity of myogenic conversion by hlh-1 declines rapidly after the first hours of development and is completely lost in differentiated cells (Fukushige & Krause, 2005).
2012). Myod expression is largely regulated by two enhancers, the core enhancer located at À20 kbp (CE) and the distal regulatory region (DRR) located 22 Glenda Comai and Shahragim Tajbakhsh at À4 kbp (Asakura, Lyons, & Tapscott, 1995; Chen & Goldhamer, 2004; Faerman, Goldhamer, Puzis, Emerson, & Shani, 1995; Goldhamer, Faerman, Shani, & Emerson, 1992; Tapscott, Lassar, & Weintraub, 1992). The CE enhancer directs gene expression in somitic precursors during embryogenesis and the DRR enhancer does so in early differentiated myogenic cells (see Pownall, Gustafsson, & Emerson, 2002).
These fusion proteins arise from gene rearrangements between the C-terminal TAD of FKHR (FOXO1A) to the N-terminal DNA-binding elements of Pax3/Pax7 in alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (Robson, He, & Eccles, 2006). , 2010). The Id gene family of myogenic inhibitors was positively regulated while muscle differentiation genes were mainly downregulated by Pax3. This suggests that Pax3 acts as a brake on muscle differentiation. , 2010) showed a bias toward genes involved in growth and oncogenesis, cell migration and metastasis but also developmental processes including the nervous and skeletal systems.
BHLH transcription factors in development and disease by Reshma Taneja