By C. H. Werkman and P. W. Wilson (Eds.)
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Extra info for Bacterial Physiology
Indeed, living matter consists of the same chemical elements found in nonliving matter, and carries on its diverse activities according to the laws of physics and chemistry; therefore, it is inevitable that the two types of matter should have certain properties in common. Living matter is a highly organized colony of diversified and complex chemical entities; each one of these entities may be capable of one or more specific activity in a favorable environment, but the association of all entities results in the orderly carrying on of numerous chemical reactions and in the duplication of each entity and of the colony as a whole.
Certain bacteria are motile and provided with filamentous appendages called flagella and others, motile or not, are able to form intracellular spores called endospores. These various structures illustrated in Figs. 15 will be discussed with some detail in the following paragraphs. C. CYTOPLASM AND CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE The cytoplasm is Considered to be a colloidal system of water, protein, lipid, mineral matter, and other substances, in which the relation to one another is uncertain. When free of inclusions, the cytoplasm is optically homogeneous and usually appears so even with the electron microscope ; however, in highly transparent cells such as those of the Sheard strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it has been possible to observe numerous, often parallel, rod-like micelles about 50 A.
Living cells mounted in a dilute solution of methyl cellulose and photographed in dark field. Note the variable number of flagellar fascicles attached to each cell. An actively moving cell usually has one fascicle which is resolved into an increasing number as the cells move more and more slowly. Courtesy of Professor Adrianus Pijper. In both cases the number varies within wide limits. In Vibrio, there is usually 1, but sometimes there are 2 or 3; in Pseudomonas there are 1 to 8; in Spirillum there are 5 to 30 terminal flagella.
Bacterial Physiology by C. H. Werkman and P. W. Wilson (Eds.)