By Scott Farris
Because the 2012 presidential crusade starts off: Profiles of twelve males who've run for the presidency and misplaced, yet who, even in defeat, have had a better impression on American background than lots of those that have served as president—from Henry Clay to Stephen Douglas, William Jennings Bryan to Al Gore—Plus, mini-profiles on 22 "honorable mentions."
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Extra resources for Almost President: The Men Who Lost the Race but Changed the Nation
Senate, 1982, p. 2). Congress dictates a vote dilution standard: the 1982 amendments to the Voting Rights Act In one sense the Supreme Court's decision in Mobile v. Bolden (1980) was well timed. The special provisions of the Voting Rights Act, having been extended for seven years in 1975, were due to expire in August 1982. The need to consider extending the Voting Rights Act by that date offered critics of the decision an opportunity to formulate a statutory bypass around it. " Although Section 2 was not a special provision of the act and was not due to expire, it provided a handy vehicle for legislative modification of the Bolden intent standard.
S. Senate, 1982, p. 28), as are listed in the Senate report. Proof of a violation of Section 2 in a given jurisdiction might include "a variety" of the following factors: 1. the extent of any history of official discrimination . that touched the right of the members of the minority group to register, to vote, or otherwise to participate in the democratic process; 2. the extent to which voting in elections . . is racially polarized; 3. the extent to which the state or political subdivision has used unusually large election districts, majority vote requirements, anti-single shot provisions, or other voting practices or procedures that may enhance the opportunity for discrimination against the minority group; 4.
Justice White, author of the White decision, dissented from the plurality, calling the plurality's opinion "flatly inconsistent" with White. He adopted the Fifth Circuit's view that the Zimmer factors provided inferences of discriminatory purpose. Justices Marshall and Brennan, in an opinion delivered by Justice Marshall, issued a vociferous dissent in which they asserted that the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments outlawed all laws that, intentionally or otherwise, lessened the impact of every citizen's vote; thus, according to Marshall, "vote-dilution decisions require only a showing of discriminatory impact to justify the invalidation of a multimember districting scheme" (p.
Almost President: The Men Who Lost the Race but Changed the Nation by Scott Farris