Read e-book online A History of Philosophy [Vol VIII]. Modern philosophy, PDF

By Frederick Copleston

ISBN-10: 0385470452

ISBN-13: 9780385470452

Conceived initially as a major presentation of the improvement of philosophy for Catholic seminary scholars, Frederick Copleston's nine-volume A background Of Philosophy has journeyed a ways past the modest objective of its writer to common acclaim because the top historical past of philosophy in English.

Copleston, an Oxford Jesuit of large erudition who as soon as tangled with A. J. Ayer in a fabled debate in regards to the lifestyles of God and the potential for metaphysics, knew that seminary scholars have been fed a woefully insufficient diet of theses and proofs, and that their familiarity with such a lot of history's nice thinkers used to be reduced to simplistic caricatures. Copleston set out to redress the incorrect through writing an entire historical past of Western philosophy, one crackling with incident and intellectual pleasure -- and person who offers full place to every philosopher, proposing his suggestion in a beautifully rounded demeanour and displaying his links to those that went ahead of and to those that came after him.

The results of Copleston's prodigious labors is a historical past of philosophy that's not likely ever to be handed. Thought journal summed up the final contract between students and scholars alike while it reviewed Copleston's A heritage of Philosophy as "broad-minded and goal, complete and scholarly, unified and good proportioned... we can't suggest [it] too highly."

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Sample text

Hence it is reasonable to conclude that it is the business of the community, that it makes for the common good or general happiness. to remove obstacles to such self-development on the part of the individual. But the removal of obstacles may very well entail a considerable amount of social legislation. What is true, of course, is that Mill departs very far from Benthamism. And this departure from Benthamism can also be seen in the sphere of economics. For example, when Mill condemned laws against trade unions and associations formed to raise wage-levels, the condemnation may have been based primarily on his belief that free rein should be given, to private enterprises in general and to voluntary economic experiments in particular.

But it implied that, within the limits set by other factors, something can be done to raise wages by human effort. In other words, there is no iron law of wages which renders nugatory all attempts to raise them. To conclude this section. Bentham, with what we may call his quantitative point of view, naturally emphasized the individual unit. Each is to count, so to speak, as one and not as more than one. And this idea naturally led him in the direction of democratic convictions. Mill shared these convictions; but he came to lay the emphasis on quality, on the development of the individual personality, a value which is best assured in a democratically constituted society.

For example, when Mill condemned laws against trade unions and associations formed to raise wage-levels, the condemnation may have been based primarily on his belief that free rein should be given, to private enterprises in general and to voluntary economic experiments in particular. But it implied that, within the limits set by other factors, something can be done to raise wages by human effort. In other words, there is no iron law of wages which renders nugatory all attempts to raise them. To conclude this section.

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A History of Philosophy [Vol VIII]. Modern philosophy, empiricism, idealism, and pragmatism in Britain and America by Frederick Copleston


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